Travel Notes: Israel is an easy place for finding vegetarian food due to the separation of dairy restaurants from meat restaurants. Every Kosher restaurant is required to choose whether it wants to serve flesh meat or dairy products but not both (the exception is fish, which is typically accepted in dairy restaurants). When you choose a dairy restaurant you will find no red meat or poultry on the menu (fish mabye). Kosher does not consider fish as a type of meat (though as far as most vegetarian travelers are concerned, fish is meat- it's the dead flesh of an animal).
Inexpensive falafel stands operate throughout Israel, and these fast food eateries are typically vegan-friendly. In general, Israelis cook with vegetable oil and rarely use animal fat. However, non-veg restaurants do use chicken and beef in soup stock, so be sure to ask.
Non-Hebrew speaking vegans might ask in English "is this dish tiv'oni?" or "can you make this tiv'oni?". Also, the word "parveh" is a vegan's best friend. It's a Kosher term which excludes all animal products except for fish, eggs, and honey. This can help narrow things down quite a bit, especially for foods that clearly don't contain fish or eggs (think chocolate, vegetable soup, etc), and is universally understood.